Abstract Examination of the pupillary responses, being simple, reliable and highly reproducible can elicit one of the “hard” neurological signs. In this article we provide an overview of

(A Evans & M Taylor)

· Diabetic Ketoacidosis
1. Only occurs in patients with a history of Insulin-treated Diabetes
2. Can be precipitated by Acute Pancreatitis
3.

Abstract Direct ophthalmoscopy is an essential part of the full systemic examination. However, the technique is challenging and time-consuming. In the acute medical setting therefore, it is advisable